Meltwater flows on the Greenland Ice Sheet.
Photography by James Balog
In the 1880s, Gustav Holm led an expedition to the Ammassalik coast of eastern Greenland, where he met several Inuit communities who had had no prior direct contact with Europeans. He returned to Denmark with a set of tactile maps of the coast carved by a native of Umivik named Kunit.
These tactile maps were used to navigate the coastline, held inside the users’ mittens, and read by feel, rather than visually. These could be employed in a kayak by at night in conjunction with the stars.
To save space the outline of the coast is carried up one side and down the other.
The Arctic Elephant-Foot Glacier found in northern Greenland. The grey zone at low elevation on the glacier is the ablation zone incised by meltwater channels, clearly separated from the white surface accumulation zone higher up.
See how these glaciers are formed here