“To conduct pressure tests in a safer manner, a water tank was constructed to encase the fuselage. It was submerged and filled with water, and then additional water was pumped into the cabin until the pressure inside the fuselage reached 1P, the equivalent of flight. This was then cycled to simulate many flights over the life of an aircraft.
By using water instead of air, water being a much less compressible fluid, the test would be much safer and the fuselage would be able to be repaired and re-tested as necessary. Had air been used, the results would have resembled the catastrophic in-flight break-ups at Elba and Naples.”
- Federal Aviation Administration
From the Retronaut
Like all coasts, the land around the Mississippi River is constantly evolving. In past centuries, that process was slowed by the annual flooding of the River’s vast delta, which brought new sediment to replace what was lost.
But climate change, coupled with heavy engineering (channeling and stronger levees), have turned this coastline into one of the most rapidly eroding areas of the U.S.
The decades old map are currently being updated and more than 30 of the region’s names have already been officially retired from the map.
“Because deltas are so dynamic, they’re either building or they’re eroding. The idea that you can pick a point in time and say, ‘This is how we want the coast to look,’ is, first of all, the wrong way to think about it. And second of all, it creates an impossible situation.”
Read more in the Atlantic Cities article.
18 temporary pontoon bridges were built for the 2013 Maha Kumbh Mela, one of the largest religious gathering on earth (with an estimated 100 million piligrims in 2013), held that year on the banks of the Sangam in Allahabad at the confluence of the rivers Ganga, Yamuna and Saraswati.
Photographs by Wolfgang Weinhardt.
The water intakes for the Chain of Rocks Water Treatment Facility on the Mississippi River, built in 1894 and 1915.
Wind tunnel test on a model aircraft using fluorescent oil to highlight the flow patterns.
Image Credit: NASA Langley/Preston Martin
After losing their boats and houses in the Typhoon Haiyan, fishermen of a destroyed village in Tanauan started building two-seated boats made of abandoned refrigerators and some wood. The first boat was made by a fisherman, whose children gave him the idea as they wanted to play in it, and soon others followed.
The Philippines and international armed forces and aid agencies are struggling to get help to devastated areas due to the extent of the destruction from Typhoon Haiyan, which has left more than 4,000 dead and 4 million people displaced.
Photographs by Damir Sagolj
Workers swarm over scaffolding to erect the Nagarjuna Sagar dam in India, May 1963.
Photograph by John Scofield, National Geographic
This year the Medicis aquaduct in Paris is 400 years old. Built to bring fresh water to the city to replace the poluted river water, it supplied first the king’s palace, then the the religious orders and finally 14 public fountains.
As well as a series of visits, an exhibition of pictures of some infrastructures above and under is touring.
From le monde
Photographies by Benoît Fauvet
Living model illustrating principle of the Forth Bridge.
The central “weight” is Kaichi Watanabe, one of the first Japanese engineers who came to study in the UK, who worked as a construction foreman on the bridge.
The Forth Bridge was completed in 1890 and is still used as a main railway connection.
Taum Sauk Hydroelectric Power Station is a pure pumped-storage hydroelectric plant, designed to help meet peak power demands during the day. Located more than 80 kilometers from the nearest water source, the Mississippi river, there is no natural primary flow available for generation, unlike most other pumped storage sites
In 2005, the plant had to shut down when the upper reservoir suffered a catastrophic failure releasing 4 million cubic-meters of water in twelve minutes.
The plant returned to service after a gap of four years. The rebuilt upper reservoir is now considered an engineering milestone, being the largest roller-compacted concrete dam in North America.